Religious order founded by the Spaniard Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) in 1534 specifically to quash heresy. Pope Paul III recognised the order in 1540 and henceforth its activities were directed by the Papacy. Characterised by a piety expressed through rigorous spiritual exercises designed to train and discipline the human will. It was a missionary order which became involved in education at all levels. Active in England. Conflict between Catholic secular priests and laity and the Jesuits.