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Traditionally bishops, popes, general councils, universities and inquisitorial offices had defined orthodox belief and, therefore, heresy (departure from orthodox belief). There had always been contests about ultimate authority in this process (between, for example, popes and general councils) but new problems arose when Henry VIII severed the allegiance of his church from Rome. The orthodox doctrine of the church of England became a real issue and one upon which monarchs and lay and ecclesiastical subjects did not always agree. Moreover, opinion shifted from day to day it seemed: what was orthodoxy today was heresy tomorrow.