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Dukes of Cleves

1481-1521 John II ('the Pious')
1521-1539 John III ('the Peaceful')
1539-1592 William ('the Rich')
1592-1609 John William

Dukes of Lorraine

1473-1508 René II
1508-1544 Anthony
1544-1545 Francis I
1545-1608 Charles III

Emperors of Japan

1465-1500 Gotsuchimikado
1500-1526 Gokashiwabara
1526-1557 Gonara
1557-1586 Ogimachi
1586-1611 Goyozei

Holy Roman Emperors

1440-1493 Frederick III of Hapsburg
1493-1519 Maximilian I
1519-1556 Charles V
1556-1564 Ferdinand I (brother of Charles V)
1564-1576 Maximilian II (son of Ferdinand I)
1576-1612 Rudolf II

Kings of Denmark and Norway

1481-1513 John I (Hans)
1513-1523 Christian II
1559-1588 Frederick II
1588-1648 Christian IV

Kings of France

1483-1498 Charles VIII
1498-1515 Louis XII
1515-1547 Francis I
1547-1559 Henry II
1559-1560 Francis II
1560-1574 Charles IX (Catherine de Medici regent)
1574-1589 Henry III (Catherine de Medici regent)
1589-1610 Henry IV

Kings of Portugal

1481-1495 John II
1495-1521 Manuel I
1521-1557 John III
1557-1578 Sebastian
1578-1580 Henry
1580-1580 Antonio
under Spanish domination from 1580-1640

Kings and Queens of Scotland

1460-1488 James III
1488-1513 James IV
1513-1542 James V
1542-1567 Mary (Marie de Guise regent)
1567-1625 James VI (James I of England 1603-1625)

Kings and Queens of Spain

1479-1504 Isabella of Castile (w/ Ferdinand of Aragon)
1479-1516 Ferdinand of Aragon (united Spain w/marriage to Isabella)
1516-1556 Charles I of Spain (later Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor)
1556-1598 Philip II
1598-1621 Philip III

Kings of Sweden

1470-1497 Sten Sturethe Elder (regent)
1497-1501 John II of Denmark (Hans)
1501-1503 Sten Sture (regent)
1503-1512 Svante Nilsson Sture (regent)
1512-1520 Sten Sture the Younger (regent)
1520-1521 Christian II (also King of Norway and Denmark)
1521-1523 Gustavus Eriksson Vasa (regent)
1523-1560 Gustavus I
1560-1568 Eric XIV
1568-1592 John III
1592-1599 Sigismund
1599-1604 Carl IX (regent)

Monarchs of Korea

1469-1494 Yi Hwang (Temple name - Seongjong)
1494-1506 Yi Yung (Dethroned, did not receive a temple name)
1506-1544 Yi Yeok (Temple name - Jungjong)
1544-1545 Yi Ho (Temple name - Injong)
1545-1567 Yi Hwan (Temple name - Myeongjong)
1567-1608 Yi Yeon (Temple name - Seonjo)


1484-1492 Innocent VIII (Giambattista Cibo)
1492-1503 Alexander VI (Roderigo Borgia)
1503-1503 (Sept.-Oct.) Pius III (Francesco Todeschini)
1503-1513 Julius II (Giulio della Rovere)
1513-1521 Leo X (Giovanni de Medici)
1522-1523 Adrian VI (Adrian of Utrecht)
1523-1534 Clement VII (Giulio de Medici)
1534-1549 Paul III (Alessandro Farnese)
1550-1555 Julius III (Giovannidel Monte)
1555-1556 Marcellus II (Marcello Cervini)
1556-1559 Paul IV (Pietro Caraffa)
1559-1565 Pius IV (Gian-Angelo de' Medici)
1565-1572 Pius V (Michele Ghislieri)
1572-1585 Gregory XIII (Ugo Buoncompagno)
1586-1590 Sixtus V (Felix Peretti)
1590-1590 Urban VIII (Giambattista Castagna)
1590-1591 Gregory XIV (Niccolo Sfondrato)
1591-1591 Innocent IX (Gian-Antonio Fachinetto)
1592-1605 Clement VIII (Ippolito Aldobrandini)

Regents of the Netherlands/ Low Countries

Margaret of Austria
Mary of Hungary
Margaret of Parma
Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alva

Sovereigns of the Dutch Republic

1579-1584 William I of Orange (known as William the Silent)
1584-1625 Maurice

Sultans of the Ottoman Empire

1481-1512 Bayezid II
1512-1520 Selim I
1520-1566 Suleiman I ('the Magnificent')
1566-1574 Selim II
1574-1595 Murad III
1595-1603 Mehmed III

Tsars of Russia

1462-1505 Ivan III ('The Great' - First ruler of all Russia)
1505-1533 Basil (or Vasili) III
1533-1584 Ivan IV ('The Terrible' - First to use the title Tsar)
1584-1598 Theodore (or Feodor) I
1598-1605 Boris Gudunov