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APPENDIX X.

JOHN ELDER'S LETTER DESCRIBING THE ARRIVAL AND MARRIAGE OF KING PHILIP, HIS TRIUMPHAL ENTRY INTO LONDON, THE LEGATION OF CARDINAL POLE, &C.


The contents of this curious little book were partially extracted by Foxe and Holinshed, but it has never been reprinted entire. It comprises, among other matters, a full description of the pageantry in London at king Philip's entry, of which there is no other copy.

Mr. Tytler, vol. ii. p. 258, says that John Elder was also the author of a wild proposal for uniting Scotland with England, addressed to Henry VIII. in 1542, preserved in the Royal MS. 18 A.XXXVIII, and which is the first article printed in the Bannatyne Miscellany, 1824. In the title to that essay he is styled "John Elder clerk, a Reddshank."

The original of the present tract is very rare; a copy was sold for eight guineas at the sale of Mr. Bindley's library in 1820. The copy in the British Museum, from which the present reprint is derived, was formerly Mr. Gough's, and was purchased by Miss S. S. Banks, as recorded in this memorandum: "1811, March 19. To Mr. Cuthell for this book, £3 3s. 0d." It is not quite perfect, but supplied by manuscript leaves.

-----------------

The copie of a letter sent in to Scotlande, of the arivall and landynge, and moste noble marryage of the moste illustre prynce Philippe, prynce of Spaine, to the moste excellente princes Marye quene of England, solemnisated in the citie of Winchester; and howe he was receyved and installed at Windsore, and of his triumphyng entries in the noble citie of London.

Whereunto is added a brefe overture or openyng of the legacion of the moste reverende father in God lorde cardinall Poole, from the Sea Apostolyke of Rome, with the substaunce of the oracyon to the kyng and quenes magesties, for the reconcilement of the realme of Englande to the unitie of the Catholyke churche.

With the verye copye also of the supplycacion exhibited to their highnesses by the three estates assembled in the parlamente. Wherin they, representing the whole body of the realme and dominions of the same, have submitted themselves to the Pope's holynesse.

To the ryghte reverende and his very especial good lord, lord Robert Stuarde,[1] bishoppe of Cathenes, and provest of Dubritane colledge in Scotlande, John Elder, his humble oratour, wisheth health, and prosperous felicitie.

Although I have ben minded divers times (my very good lord) for to have written to your lordeship such newes as have occurred here, in time of peace, or els where; yet, nevertheles, by reason of unnaturall warres betwixt both these realmes of Englande and Scotlande, at whiche tyme I woulde not presume to wryte to foren places, and partly because I could mete with none which had accesse to the place where you remained, I have therfore been let from so doing hitherto from tyme to tyme. And whereas I have good occasion ministered now to write, by reason of suche most noble newes as are in England at this present, I wil so briefly as I may advertis you of the same.

Therfore your lordeship shall understande, that Philip, by the grace of God king of England, Fraunce, Naples, Hierusalem, and Irelande, and sonne to the most fortunate and most victorious monarche Charles the fifth [2] of that name, nowe emperour of Rome, arrived to the coast of Englande, with a navie of vii. score saile, and landed at Southampton in Hamshire, within ten mile of the citie of Winchester, on friday the xx. day of July last, at iii. of the clocke at afternone. [3] At which towne, the quenes majestie being seven mile from thens, the lordes of the coullsel and diverse other noble men most lovyngly welcomed him; where in the meane season my lord the erll of Arundel, lord steward of Englande, put a very riche garter about his left legge. And there, to recreat him selfe after the sea, with suche noble men as came with him, he continued friday, satterday, and sundaye.

Than the next munday, which was the xxiv. of Juli, his highnes came to the citie of Winchester [4] at vi. of the clocke at nighte, the noble men of Englande and his nobles riding, one with another, before him, in good order, through the citie, every one placed according to his vocacion and office, he riding on a faire white horse, in a riche coate embroidered with gold, his doublet, hosen, and hat suite-like, with a white fether in his hat very faire. And after he lighted he came the hie waye towardes the weast dore of the cathedrall churche, where he was most reverently received wyth procession [5] by my lorde the bishop of Winchester, now lord chaunceller of England, and v. other bishops, mitred, coped, and staved, where also, after he had kneled, kissed the crucifix, and done his praier, he ascended from thens v. steps upon a skafholde which was made for the solemnizacion of his marriage: and untill he came to the quere doore, the procession song Laus, honor et virtus. And after he had entred the quere, and perceaved the moste holy sacrament, he put of his cap, and went bare-headed with great humilitie, until he entred his seate or travers as they cal it, where after he had kneled, my lorde chaunellor began Te Deum Laudamus, and the quere, together with the organs, song and plaied the rest. Whiche beeng doen, he was brought with torch-light to the deanes house, the lordes going before him, and the quenes garde in their riche coates standing al the way: whiche house was very gorgeously prepared for him, adjoinilig to my lorde the bishop of Winchester's palace, where the quenes highnes then lay, not passing a paire of but-lengthes betwene. Thys nighte, after he had sopped, at x. of the clocke (as I am crediblye informed), he was brought by the counsell a privie waye to the quene, [6] where her grace verye lovyngly, yea, and most joyfullye receyved him. And after they had talked together half an hour they kissed, and departed. I am crediblie informed also that at his departing he desired the quenes highnes to teache hym what he should say to the lordes in English,[7] at his departing: and she told him he should say, "Good night, my lordes all." And as he came by the lordes, he said as the quene had taught him.

So the nexte tuesdaye, at three of the clocke, he went to the quene from the deanes house afote, where every body might see him; the lord stewarde, [8] the erle of Darbey, the erle of Pembroke, with divers other lordes and noblemenne, as well Englishe as others, went before him, he going alone, in a cloke of blacke cloth embrodred with silver, and a paire of white hose.[9] And after that he had entred the courte, where all kinde of instmmentes played very melodiously, and came within the hal, where the quenes majesty was standing on a skafhold, his highnes descended, and amiably receaving him, did kisse him in presence of all the people. And then taking him by the right hande, they went together in the chaumber of presence, where after they had, in sighte of all the lordes and ladies, a quarter of an houre pleasantly talked and communed together, under the cloth of estate, and each of them merily smylyng on other, to the greate comforte and rejoising of the beholders, he toke his leve of her grace, and departed towardes the cathedrall churche to evensong, all the lordes (as I have said) going before him: where also from the courte hal dore to the courte gate, all the pensioners and the garde (as he and the lordes went) stode all along on both sides the waye. Evensong being done, he was very princely brought from the churche with torche-lyghte unto the deanes house agayne.

Then wedinsdaye, being Sanct James daie, the xxv. of July, his highnes (at x. of the clocke) and his nobles before him, went to the cathedral churche, and remayned there (the dores beyng very straightlie kepte) untill the quenes highnes came: whose magestie, with al her counsel and nobilitie before her, came thyther at half houre to aleven. And entring at the west dore of the said cathedrall churche (where her grace was receaved the satterday before, in like manner as his highnes was the munday following,) her majestie ascended the foresaid steps, and came towardes the quere dore: where a little without the same dore was made a round mount of bordes, ascendyng also five steps above the skafholde. On which mount, immediatelye after her magestie and the king were shreven, they were maried by my lord the bishop of Winchester lord chancellour of Inglande, her magestye standing on the right side of the said mount, and the king on the left side. And this the mariage being ended [10] and solemnizated, which with the biddinges and the banes ther of was declared and done by the said lord chauncelor, both in Latin and English, his lordship declared also there: How that the emperours magestie resigned, under his emperial seale, the kingdomes of Naples and Hierusalem to his sonne Philip prince of Spain, wherby it might well appeare to all men that the quenes highnes was then maried, not only to a prince, but also unto a king. The quenes mariage ring was a plain hoope of gold without any stone in it: for that was as it is said her pleasure, because maydens were so maried in olde tymes. Thys (as I have saide) being ended and done, the erle of Darbey beefore the quenes magestie, and the erle of Pembroke before the kinges highnes, did bere ech of them a swerd of honour. And so both their majesties entered the quere hande in hand under a canapye borne by iiij. knightes towardes the hie altar, where after they had kneled a while with ech of them a taper, they arose, and tbe quene went to a seate or travers of the right hande of the altar, and the kinge to another seate of the left hand, where they continued thus several in their meditacions and praiers untill the gospell was saied, and then they came out, and kneled all the hie masse tyme openly before the hie aultar, the care clothe beeyng holden, as the maner is. [11] Where duryng hie masse tyme the quenes chapell matched with the quire, and the organs, used suche swete proporcyon of musicke and harmonye, as the like (I suppose) was never beefore invented or harde. The hie masse beeing done, whiche was celebrated and sayd by my lorde the bishop of Winchester, having to his coadjutors the five bishops aforesaid, that is to say, the bishops of Duresm, Ely, London, Lincolne, and Chichestre, (wherin both the princes offering rich jewels, and delivering their tapers, yea and the kinges highnes at the Agnus Dei kissyng the celebrator, according to the ceremonies of mariages used in holy catholicke churches,) the king of heroldes openly, in presence of both their magesties and the whole audience, solempnly proclaymed this their new stile and title in Latin, Frenche, and in Englishe.

The stile in Latin.

"Philippus et Maria, Dei gratia, Rex et Regina Anglie, Francie, Neapolis, Hierusalem et Hibernie, fidei defensores, Principes Hispaniarum et Secilie, Archiduces Austrie, Duces Mediolani, Burgundie et Brabantie, Comites Haspurgi, Flandrie et Tyrolis."

And wheras this letter maye come perhaps from your lordships handes, in the handes of those which understand not the Latin tongue, I wil therfore by your lordships leve, to satisfie and content their mindes, being unlearned, not only declare the same stile and title in English, but also all suche other thinges as shal folowe in Latin.

The stile in Englishe.

"Philip and Marie, by the grace of God king and quene of England, Fraunce, Naples, Hierusalem, and Irelande, defenders of the faith, princes of Spain and Secyll, archdukes of Austria, dukes of Millan, Burgundy, and Brabant, counties of Haspurge, Flaunders, and Tirol."

This stile and title being thus proclaimed, the king and the quene departed, hand in hande, under the forsaid canapie, to my lord chauncellor's place, where the quenes grace was lodged; whose two most princely and most rich abiliments was of betin gold upon golde, and so riche set with precious stones, as no man coulde esteme the value therof. At which place, during diner time, as none could be in the world more sumptuous, when their magestyes dined openly in the hal both together at one table, under the cloth of estate: [12] there was suche soundes and noise of al maner of instruments, as hath been seldome hearde; when also, at the thirde course, I perceived all the heraldes of armes entre the hall two and two, in their heraldicall garmentes, and crying three times with an hye voyce "Largesse!" the king of them, commonlye called Garter, proclamed there againe the kynges highnes and quenes new stile and title, in maner, fourme, and effect as he did in the cathedrall churche when hye masse was done. And so, crying three tymes "Larges!" agayne, they departed.

And thus, shortly to conclude, there was for certain daies after this moste noble mariage suche triumphing, bankating, singing, masking, and daunsing, as was never in Englande heretofore, by the reporte of all men. Wherfore, to see the kinges magestie and the quene sitting under the cloth of estate, in the hall where they dyned, and also in the chamber of presence at dansing tyme, where both their magesties dansed, and also to behold the dukes and noblemen of Spain daunse with the faire ladyes and the moste beutifull nimphes of England, it should seme to him that never see suche, to be an other worlde.

Nowe, to trouble youre lordship any further with the hole and perfite declaration of the riche and sundrie apparelles whiche the nobilitie of Englande and Spain used and ware at and after the mariage of these two most excellent princes, it were but a phantasie and losse of paper and ynke; for no mortall princes (emperoures and kinges only except) were able surely to excell them. And such brave liveries as their servauntes had, I never sawe the lyke in all the countreys that ever I travayled. And finally, with what ryche hanginges the cathedral church of Winchester and the quyer was hanged, and the two seates where bothe the princes sat, it was a wonder to se. And againe, to vew and mark what eligaunt verses in Latin of all kynde of sortes were affixed and set up on the cathedrall churche dores, and the portes of my lorde chaunceller's place where the king and the quene laye, by the skollers of Winchester Colledge, in prayse and commendacion of this most noble and rare mariage of Philip of Spayne and Mari of England, it shoulde quicken the spirits of al dull doltes to embrace good letters, and of the best learned to favour the good will of al painefull studentes. I purpose for to sende the copy of some of theym to your lordship (God willing) hereafter. [13] And in the meane season I will not omit two verses whiche were wrytten in a whyte fielde, whych heroldes call silver, with faire Romayne letters of blacke, which they call sable, above the inner port of the place wher the two princes lay, a month before they cam thither; whiche verses (as I am advertised) were made by my lorde the bishop of Winchester, nowe lorde channceller of Englande, whose exacte learnyng is well knowen every where, yea, and he to bee of moste exacte judgement in all kinde of good letters.

These be the two verses: --

0 domus es felix nimium,[14] nimiumque beata,
Hospitio tales nunc habitura tuo.


This is to saye, --

Thou art happy house, righte blist and blist again,
That shortly shalt suche noble guestes[15] retayn.


And after that their majesties had thus remayned in the citie of Winchestre ten daies (unto the whiche citie and to Southhampton, in token and perpetuall memorye of this their moste noble mariage, solemnizated in the one, and the kinges first landing in the other, they did geve great privilegis and landes for ever,) they removed from thens on tuesdaye the last of Juli, and riding through the citie in a very princely order, they wente to Basing, xv. mile from Winchestre, where at my lord treasurer of Englandes house they lay that night and the next day following, where vvas suche noble chere provided for them, and both their nobilities, as I have not sene the like for the tyme in my dayes.

The next thursday, being the seconde of August, they departed from thens, and rode to Reding, wher after they had lyne but that nyghte, they came to Windesore the next friday, at vi. of the clocke at nyghte.

And cumming in at the west end of the town, they came, with two swerdes borne before them, streight way towardes the churche weste dore, where with procession they were receaved by my lord chaunceller, where also the lord stewarde of Englande revested the king with the robe of the order of the garter, and the quenes magestie put the collar of the same order aboute his necke, whiche being done, they bothe proceded under a canapy towardes the quere, the lordes of the order going beefore them in their robes and collars also. And after that the kyng was there installed, and Te Deum song and ended, they came out at the same dore of the quere where they entred, and went to a place of the north side of the same, where the kinges highnes and the lordes put of their robes; which being done, the kinges magestie and the quene departed on horse-backe to their lodging in Windsor Castle.

And to make an ende here of their progres, your lordship shall under stande, that after they had remayned at Windsor certaine daies after the kinges installacion, they came to Richemont. When being advertysed that all suche triumphes and pageantes as wer devised in London agaynst their cumming thyther, were finished and ended, they came from thens by water, on friday the xvii. of August, and landed at S. Marie Overes staires on Southwarke side; where every corner being so straight kept as no man could passe, come, or go, but those which were appointed to attende their landiug, they passed through my lord chauncellers house at [16] Suffolke place, which was prepared for their lying that night. This Suffolke place, and your lordship be remembred, is of the left hande as we enter into South warke cumming from Hampton Courte; whiche place was made by the olde duke of Suffolke, immediatly after that he maried the godly and vertuous princes Marye quene dowager of Fraunce and the seconde doughter of king Henry the vii.

Nowe to begyn and declare their cumming to London. and to make an ende, Your reverend lordship shall understande that bothe their moste excellent majesties made thier most noble and triumphing entries into the noble citie of London furth of Southwarke place, the next satterdaye, which was the xviii. of August, at ii. of the clocke at after none. Where after all the lordes of their moste honorable privie counsel, and the ambassadours of all nacyons, witb the nobilitie of Englande and Spayne, and divers other noble and jentle men as wel English as straunge, wer al on horsebacke, two and two, in a ranke, the lord maior of London, as the two princes came out at the gate, kneled and delivered a mace, whiche signified his power and authoritie within the citie of London, to the quenes grace. Whose magestie delivering the said mace to the lord maior again, the kinges highnes and she ascended their horses, and so marchyng towardes London bridge, the quene of the righte hande, and the king of the left, with two swerdes of honour before theym, and before the swerdes the lord maior of London bearing the mace, the Toure of London begynneth to shoote.

And when they came to the drawe-bridge, there they made the fyrst staye, where there was in the hight thereof a fayre table, holden up with two greate giauntes, the one named Corineus Britannus, aml the other Gogmagog Albionus. In which table, in a field silver, with faire Romaine letters of sable, these xii. verses following were wrytten:

Unica Caesarae stirpis spes inclite princeps,
Cui Deus imperium totius destinat orbis,
Gratus et optatus nostras accedis ad oras.
Ecce sagittipotens tibi tota Britania dextram
Porrigit, et gremium tibi nobilis Anglia pandit,
Te tamen in primis urbs Londoniensis honorat,
Incolumemque suum gaudet venisse Philippum,
Ipsa suis sentit charum te civibus esse,
Et fore foelicem tali se principe credit.
Teque putant omnes missum divinitus urbi,
Cujus mens, studium, vox, virtus, atque voluntas
Gaudet, et in clari consentit amore Philippi.

That is to say,

O noble Prince, sole hope of Caesar's side,
By God apointed all the world to gyde,
Right hartely welcome art thou to our land,
The archer Britayne yeldeth the hir hand,
And noble England openeth her bosome
Of hartie affection for to bid the welcome.
But chiefly London doth her love vouchsafe,
Rejoysing that her Philip is come safe.
She seith her citisens love thee on eche side,
And trustes they shal be happy of such a gide:
And al do thinke thou art sent to their citie
By th' only meane of God's paternall pitie,
So that their minde, voice, study, power, and will,
Is onlie set to love the, Philippe, still

 

Here also the Toure of London (the signe geven that the kinge and quene were in syghte thereof) shotte suche peales of ordinaunce in and about every quarter thereof, and specially out of the toppe of the whyte toure and of the wharffe, as never was heard the lyke in Englande heretofore.

Which being done, they proceded forwarde until they came to Gracious strete, where in their waye the conduit therof was finely trimmed, whereon was painted verye ingeniouslye the nine Worthies, with many notable proverbes and adages, written with fayre Roman letters on every side thereof.

And at the signe of the Splaied Eagle they made a seconde staie, where the first pagent was devysed and made by the marchaunt straungers of the Stilliarde. Where emongest divers notable stories, there was in the top therof a picture of tbe king sitting on horssebacke, all armed verye gorgeously, and richly set out to the quicke. Under which picture were written in field silver with fayre Romaine letters of sable, these wordes folowinge after this maner:

Divo Phi. Aug. Max.
Hispaniarum principi exoptatissimo.

That is to saye,

"In hononr of worthy Philip the fortunate and most mighty
Prince of Spaine, most earnestly wyshed for."


And under that were wrytten in a field blue, whiche heroldes call azure, with faire Romaine letters of silver, these two verses folowinge:

Constantem fortemque animum, ter magne Philippe,
Nec spes a recto, nec metus acer agit.

That is to saye,

Most mighty Philip, neither hope nor fear may frighte
Thy stronge and valiaunt hart away from ryghte.


Whiche picture, and al other notable stories and wrytinges in the saide pagent, pleasing their magesties very wel, they marched forward untill they came to Cornewall, [17] where the conduite also there being very excellentlye painted, at the west end of the strete was the seconde pagent, which was ryght excellently handled and set out, where their magesties made the thirde staye. In whiche pagente were foure lively persons, which represented the foure moste noble Philips, of whose most noble actes and doinges we read in auncient stories. That is to saye, Philip kyng of Macedonia, Philip the Romayn Emperour, Philip duke of Burgundy surnamed Bonus, and Philip duke of Burgundy surnamed Audax; betwixt which foure princes, two beying of the right side of the pagent, and two of the leaft, there was a fayre table, wherin were written in a fielde azure, with Romaine letters of silver, these viii. verses folowyng:

Quatuor a priscis accepimus esse Philippos,
Quorum per totum celebratur gloria mundum.
Nobilitas primum summa decoravit honore,
Prosperitate facit clarum fortuna secundum,
Tertius aeterna bonitatis laude refulget,
Quartus bellator fortis memoratur et audax;
Sed tua nobilitas, fortuna, audatia, virtus,
Omnibus his praestat, vincisque Philippe Philippos.

That is to saye,

We read in time past Philips have bene foure,
Whose glory throwghout al the worlde is blowen;
The first through noble bloud past all before,
The secondes matche in good succes unknowen;
The third for goodnes gat eternall fame,
The forthe for boldnes used agaynst hys fone;
In birth, in fortune, boldnes, vertuous name,
Thou Philip passest these Phillips fower, alone.

This pageante, with the stories therein contained, liking the kinges highnes and the quene wonderous wel, they passed towardes Chepeside, and at the easte ende therof, the conduite there also being finely paynted and trimmed, they made the fourth staye, where the thirde pageante was made. In the height wherof was one playing on a harpe, who signified the most ex ellent musician Orpheus, of whom and of Amphion we reade in the fables of old poetes; where also were nyne faire ladyes playing and singing on divers swete instrumentes, signifying the nine Muses. And not farre from them were men and children decked up like wilde beastes, as lions, wolfes, foxes, and beares. So that the moste swete strokes, Doyse, and soundes of Orpheus, with the nyne Muses playing and singinge, in the sayd pageant, and also the counterfeated beastes daunsing and leaping with Orpheus harpe and the Muses melodye, exhilarated and rejoysed their majesties very much. Under Orpheus, in a field silver, with faire Romaine letters of sable, were written in a very faire table these viii. verses followinge:

Eloquii claro ditatus munere princeps
Voce sua cives dectet, quocunque lubebit.
Hoc veteres olim docuere per Orphea vates,
Qui movisse feras cantus dulcedine fertur,
Sic tua sola tuos dicendi copia cives
Excitat, et moestae prebet solatia menti.
Ergo tibi merito magnas agit Anglia grates,
Anglia que solo gaudet dicente Philippo.

That is to saye,

The prince that hath the gift of eloquenoe
May bend his subjectes to his most behove,
Which in old time was shewed by covert sence
In Orpheus whose song did wilde beastes move.
In like case now thy grace of spech so franke
Doth comforte us, whose mindes afore were bleke,
And therefore England geveth the harty thanke,|
Whose chiefest joye is to hear thee, Philip, speke.

Their majesties being satisfyed with the sighte of that pageant, they marched from thence, and passinge through Chepeside, where they perceiving the crosse therof, which was with fine gold richely gilded, they staied a litle lookinge thereon, whiche was (no doute it is) unto them a right excellent view, where also the kinges highnes, perceaving the crucifix in the top therof, very humblie put of his cap. Thys sene, they marched forwarde, and at the west end of Chepe they made the fyft staye, where was the fourth and most excellent pageant of al, wherein was contained, declared, and shewed their most noble genealogy from kinge Edward the third, which genealogie was most excellently and moste ingeniously set out, with a great arboure or tree; under the roote wherof was an olde man liinge on his left side, with a long white beard and close crowne on his head, and a sceptour in his ryght hand, and a ball imperial in his lefte; which olde man signified kinge Edward the third, of whom both their majesties are lineally descended; which greene arbour or tree grewe up of both the sides, with braunches, whereon did sit young faire children, which represented the persons of such kinges, quenes, princes, dukes, earles, lordes,

and ladies, as descended from the said king Edward the iii. unto their daies, whose names were written above their heades in fieldes azure, in faire tables, with Roman letters of silver. Where also in the top of the said arbour or tre, was a quene of the right hande, and a king of the left, which presented their magesties; above whose heades was written their new stile and title, with fayre Roman letters of sable in a fielde golde; and above that, in the height of al, wer both their armes joined in one, under one crown emperial. And finally, under the old man whiche lay under the rote of the arbour, and signified (as I have said) king Edward the third, were written these v. verses folowinge, in a field silver, with letters of gold:

Si te bellipotens veterum juvat Anglia regum
Gloria, quae summis quondam te laudibus auxit,
Illorum sobolem Mariam, magnumque Philippum
Diligere, et toto complecti pectore debes.
Quos Deus ex uno communi fonte profectos
Connnbio veterem voluit conjungere stirpem.

That is to saye,

Englande, if thou delite in auncient men
Whose glorious actes thy fame abrod dyd blase,
Both Mary and Philip their offspring ought thou then
With al thy hert to love and to embrace,
Which both descended of one auncient lyne
It hath pleased God by mariage to combyne.

Which pageant beynge throughlye vewed and much commended of their majesties, they wente hence towardes Paules church. And in their way a skoller of Paules skoole, decked up in cloth of gold, delyvered unto the kinges highnes a fayre boke, which he receyved verye jentlie. Where also a fellow came slipping upon a corde, as an arrowe out of a bow, from Paules steple to the grounde, and lighted with his heade forwarde on a greate sort of fether beds: And after he [had] clame up the corde againe, and done certene feates, their majesties lighted, and being in Paules church receaved with procession by the bishop of London, and Te Deum song and ended, they departed, and marched towardes Flete strete, at the condit whereof they made the sixt and last staye, where was the fift and hindermost pagent of all. Wherein was a quene and a king representing their highnes, having of their right side Justicia with a swerd in her hande, and Equitas with a payre of ballaunce; and of theyr left side Veritas wyth a boke in her hande, whereon was written Verbum Dei, and Misericordia with a hearte of golde. Where also from the height of the pageant descended one which signified Sapientia, with a crowne in eche of her handes, whereof the one she put on the head of her that presented the quene, and the other on the head of him that presented the king; under which two wer written, in a field azure, with fayre Roman letters of silver, these .vi. verses folowing:

Qui verax clemensque simul, ac justus et equus,
Virtutisque suam complevit lumine mentem,
Si diadema viro tali Sapientia donet,
Ille gubernabit totum foeliciter orbem.
Et quia te talem cognovimus esse, Philippe,
Nos fortunatos fore te regnante putamus.

That is to saye,

When that a man is jentle, just, and true,
With vertuous giftes fulfilled plenteously,
If Wisdome then him with hir crowne endne,
He governe shal the whole world prosperously.
And sith we know thee, Philip, to be such,
While thou shalt reigne we thinke us happy much.

And after that their magesties had seen the effecte of thys pageant, they proceeded forward towardes Temple bar, where they stayed a litle in viewinge a certaine oracion in Latin, which was in a long table wrytten with Romayne letters, above the porte therof, as they passed, and departed furth of the citie. Which oracion declared that such triumphs and pagiantes as were devised and made in the noble citie of London by the lord maior therof, his brethren and the citisens, for theyr entries, whose most happy cumming they most hertly so long desired and wished for; and agayne the running and rejoysing of the greate number of people as were there calling and crying "God save your graces," was an evident token, testimonie, and witnes of their faithful and unfained hertes to the quenes highnes and the king. For whose moste excellente majesties they prayed unto Almightye God longe to lyve, rule, and reygne over their most noble empyre of Englande.

And now makyng an end here of this theyr most triumphyng entries into the noble citye of London, they departed from Temple barre towardes Yorke place, otherwyse called the Whyte hal: wher after they had lighted they came hand in hand into the great chamber of presens, where also, after they had talked a little space, they toke theyr leave eache of other.

And so the quenes magestie entring that part of the courte comenly called the kinges side, and the kinges highnes entryng the other parte called the quenes, there they rested and remayned for certayne dayes.

Wher in the meane season two princely presentes came to their magesties. The one from the emperour, which is .xii. pieces of Arras worke, so richlie wroughte with golde, silver, and silke, as none in the worlde maye excell them. In which peces be so excellentlye wroughte and sette out all the emperoures majesties procedinges and victories againste the Turkes, as Apelles were not able (if he were alive) to mende any parcell thereof with his pensell.

And the other present from the quene of Polonia, which is a paire of regalles, so curiouslye made of golde and silver, and so set with precious stones, as lyke or none suche have bene seldome sene.

And after they had thus remained at the Whitehall certaine daies (as I have said), and had bene in Westminster colledge,[18] where their majesties were receyved with procession by the deane thereof, and had heard masse, and perused al the monumentes and tombes of such kinges as be enterred there they departed to Hampton courte, where they continued untill thys parliment. [19]

At which tyme they came from thens to Whitehall agayne. Whyche parlimente did begin the xii. day of November last, on which day both their magesties, and al the lordes spirituall and temporall, as use and custom hath ever been, rode to Westminster abbey, with all princely ensignes of honor, and solempnities appertayning to the roiall estate.

Further, youre lordeshippe shall understande that the xviii. daye of the sayed moneth, the righte reverende father in God, lorde cardinall Poole, accompanyed wyth my lorde Paget, my lord Clynton, and sir Anthony Browne knight, late created lorde Montague, and dyvers other noble menne, came from Gravesende to the White hall in one of the kynges barges. Where the kinges majestie, beinge advertysed that he hadde shot London brydge; his highnes, with the swerde of honoure borne before hym, came down and receaved him verye amiably, as he landed at the common landynge brydge of the courte. And from thence they bothe passed up to the chsmbre of presence, where the quenes majestie was sittinge under the clothe of estate, whose highnes also receaved him very joyfully.

And after that both theyr majesties and he had communed an houre very lovinglye, my lorde cardenall toke his leave of their highnes. And then my lord chaunceler of his right hande, and the erle of Shrewsbery of his left, they went by water to Lambeth, which is a place perteyninge to the archebishop of Canterbury, where his lordeship lyeth as yet. This cardinall is an Englysheman borne, of whome (I am sure) your lordship hath hearde, and discended of the bloude roiall of Englande. For his mother was doughter to George duke of Clarence, which was brother to Edwarde the fourth of that name, kinge of Englande. Whyche cardinall hathe bene an exile out of England these xxi. yeres. The cause whereof was, that he woulde not assente to kynge Henry the eight in the matter of divorse from his most lawfull wife quene Katherin, mother to the quene that now is. And that he would not admitte the sayd king to beare the title of Supreme Head of the Churche of Englande, whiche by a newe example he hadde lately (as it is now sayd) usurped.

This opinion did not onely purchase exile to thys cardinal himselfe, but also was the death of the vertuouse lady the countes of Salysbery his mother, and lord Montegle [20] hys brother, and the marques of Exester his cousin, wyth manye other noble menne, being suspect as adherents to him in the same opinion.

Surely thys cruelty was great, but that whyche exceded all the rest: thys olde ladye being at least lx. and x. yeares of age, cosin to the king, and beyng (as it is saied) most innocent and giltles, was without judgement or processe of lawe, drawen by the hore heres [21] to the blocke, not knowyng any cause why, to dye.

Many lyke examples of crueltie folowed in Englande by that alteracion, whiche are oute of my purpose; but this I have touched by occasion of this cardinall, who nowe by the quenes goodnes is restored to the honour of his house. And nowe of late is arrived in Englande as ambassadour and legate from the pope's holynes, with most ample commission to receive the realme of Englande unto the unitie of the churche, wherof your lordship shal perceve more hereafter. He is and semeth to be of nature sad and grave, whose good lyfe maye be an example to the reste of his profession, and hls excellent learning is well knowen through all Europe. For I assure your lordship, that at my beinge in Rome xvi. yeares agon, I have hearde out of the mouthes aswel of my countrymen then being in Rome, as of the Romaines themselfes no les, yea, and more then I have saide. For it is commonly sayde of him by lerned men in Rome, and in other places where I have travayled, "Polus cardinalis, natione Anglus, pietatis et literarum testimonio dignus, non qui Polus Anglus, sed qui Polus angelus vocetur."

But nowe passinge over the praysinges of thys noble and vertuous prelate, whome no manne dispraiseth, I will procede where I lefte.

Within fewe daies after hys cumminge to Lambeth, a daye was prefixed by appoyntment of the king and quenes majesties, that the three estates of England being called unto the parliament shoulde be brought unto the presence of the cardinal for the better understandinge of his legation. This assemble was appointed in the greate chambre of the courte at Westminster, where as the king and quenes majesties sitting under the cloth of estate, and al the three estates placed in theyr degrees, the cardinall sytting in a chaire on the right hand, out of the cloth of estate, my lord chaunceller of England began in this mamer.

"My lordes of the upper house, and you masters of the nether house, here is present the right reverend father in God, my lord cardinal Pole, come from the Apostolike Sea of Rome as ambassadour to the king and quenes magesties upon one of the moste weightiest causes that ever happened in thys realme. And whiche perteineth to the glory of God and your universall benefit. The which ambassage their majesties pleasure is to be signified to you all by hys own mouth, trustyng that you will receyve and accept it in as benevolent and thankefull wyse as theyr highnesses have done, and that you will geve attente and inclynable eare to hym."

When his lordship had thus made an ende, my lord cardinall, taking the occasion offred, without any studye, as it seemed, spake in effect as foloweth:

"My lordes all, and you that are the commons of this present parliment assembled, which in effecte is nothing els but tbe state and body of the whole realme, As the cause of my repaire hither hath been both wisely and gravely declared by my lord chaunceller, so before that I entre to the particularities of my commission, I have somewhat to say touching myselfe, and to geve most humble and harti thankes to the king and quenes magesties, and after them to you all, whiche of a man exiled and banisht from this common wealth have restored me to a member of the same: and of a man having no place nether here or els where within this realme, have admitted me in place where to speake and to be heard. Thys I protest unto you al, that though I was exiled my natyve country without just cause, as God knoweth, yet that ingratitude could not putt from me the affeccion and desire that I had to profitt and doe you good. Yf the orfer of my service might have been receaved, it was never to seke: and where that could not be taken, you never failed of my prayer, nor never shall. But leaving the rehersall thereof, and cumming more nere to the matter of my commission, I signifie unto you all that my principall travayl is, for the restitucion of this noble realme to the auncient nobilitie, and to declare unto you, that the Sea Apostolike, from whens I come, hath a special respect to this realme above al other; and not without cause, seing that God himselfe, as it were by providence, hath geven this realme prerogative of nobilitie above other, which to make more playne unto you, it is to be considered that this iland first of all ilandes received the light of Christes religion. For, as stories testifie, it was prima provinciarum quae amplesxa est fidem Christi. For the Brittons being first inhabitauntes of this realme (notwithstandyng the subjeccion of the emperours and heathen princes) dyd receyve Christes fayth from the Apostolike Sea, universally, and not in partes, as other countryes, nor by one and one, as clockes encrease their houres by distinction of tymes, but altogether at ones as it were in a moment. But after that their ill merites or forgeatfulnes of God had deserved expulsion, and that straungers being infidels had possessed this land, yet God of his goodnes not leaving where he ones loved, so illumined the hartes of the Saxons, being heathen men, that they forsoke the darknes of heathen errours, and enbraced the light of Christes religion, so that within small space idolatry and heathen supersticion was utterlye abandoned in this iland. This was a greate prerogative of nobilitie, wherof though the benefite be to be ascribed to God, yet the meane occasion of the same came from the church of Rome, in the faithe of whiche churche we have ever since continued and consented, with the rest of the worlde, in unitye of religion. And to shew further the fervent devotion of the inhabitauntes of this iland towardes the churche of Rome, we rede that divers princes in the Saxons' time, with great travell and expenses, went personally to Rome, as Offa and Adulphus, whiche thought it not inough to shew themselfes obedient to the said see, unles that in their owne personnes they had gon to that same place from whence they had receved so great a grace and benefite. In the time of Carolus Magnus, who first founded the university of Parys, he sent into England for Alcuinus, a great learned man, which first brought learning to that university. Whereby it semeth that the greatest part of the world fet the light of religion from England. Adrian the fourth, being an Englishman, converted Norway from infidelity, which Adrian afterwardes, upon great affection and love that he bare to thys realme, being his native country, gave to Henry the ii. king of England the right and seniory of the dominion of Ireland, whiche pertained to the see of Rome.

"I wil not reherse the manifold benefites that this realme hath receaved from the Apostolike Sea, nor how ready the same hath been to relive us in all our necessities. Nor I wil not rehearse the manifolde miseries and calamities that this realme hath suffred by swarving from that unitie. And even as in thys realme, so in all other countries which, refusing the unitie of the catholike fayth, have followed fantastical doctryne, the like plages have happened. Let Asia, and the empire of Grece, be a spectacle unto the world, who, by swarving from the unitie of the churche of Rome, are brought into captivitie and subjeccion of the Turke. All storyes be full of like examples. And to cum unto latter tyme, loke upon our nie neighbours of Germany, who, by swarving from this unitie, are miserablye afflicted with diversitie of sectes, and devided in factions. What shal I rehearse unto you, the tumultes and effusion of blood that hath happened there in late dayes; or trouble you with the rehersal of those plages that have happened sins this innovacion of religion, whereof you have felt the bitternes, and I have hearde the reporte; of al which matters I can say no more but suche was the misery of the tyme. And see how farre forth this furie went. For those that live under the Turke may frely live after their conscience, and so was it not lawfull here. Yf men examined wel upon what groundes these innovations began, they shall well finde that the rote of thys, as of many other mischiefes, was avarice, and that the lust and carnal affeccion of one man confounded all lawes, both devine and humane; and notwithstandyng all these devises and pollicies practised within thys realme against the church of Rome, they neded not to have loste you, but that they sought rather as frendes to reconcile you, then as enemies to enfeaste you; for they wanted no great offers of the most mightie potentates in all Europe to have ayded the church in that quarell. Then marke the sequel; ther semed by these chaunges to rise a gret face of riches and gayne, which in profe cam to gret misery and lacke. Se howe God then can confounde the wisdome of the wise, and turne unjust pollicy to mere folye, and that thing that semed to be done for reliefe, was cause of playne ruyne and decay. Yet see that goodnes of God, which at no tyme fayled us, but most benignlye offered hys grace, when it was of our partes leaste soughte, and worste deserved.

"And when all lyghte of true religion seamed utterly extincte, as the churches defaced and aulters overthrowen, the ministers corrupted; even lyke as in a lampe the lyghte being covered, yet it is not quenched, even so in a few remained the confession of Christes fayth; namely, in the brest of the quenes excellency, of whome to speake wythout adulacyon, the saing of the prophet may be verified, Ecce quasi derelicta.

"And see howe miraculouslye God of hys goodnes preserved her hyghnes contrarye to the expectacyon of manne. That when numbers conspyred agaynste her, and policies were devised to disherit her, and armed power prepared to destroye her, yet she being a virgin, helples, naked, and unarmed, prevailed, and had the victorye over tyrauntes, which is not to be ascribed to any pollici of man, but to the almighty greate goodnes and providence of God, to whome the honour is to be geven. And therefore it may be sayd Da gloriam Deo. For in mannes judgemente, on her grace's parte was nothinge in apparance but dispayre. And yet for all these practises and devises of ill men, here you se hir grace established in hir estate, being your lawful quene and governes, borne amonge you, whome God hathe appointed to reigne over you, for the restitucion of true religion, and extirpacion of all erroures and sectes. And to confirme her grace the more stronglye in thys enterprise, lo howe the providence of God hath joyned her in mariage with a prince of like religion, who being a kinge of great might, armour, and force, yet useth towardes you neyther armour nor force, but seketh you by the waye of love and amitie, in which respecte greate cause you have to gyve thankes to Almighty God that hathe sent you suche catholyke governours. It shal be therefore your parte againe to love, obey, and serve them. And as it was a singuler favoure of God to conjoyne theym in maryage, so it is not to be doubted but that he shal sende them yssue for the comforte and suerty of thys common wealthe. Of all prynces in Europe, the emperoure hath travayled most in the cause of religion, as it appereth by hys actes in Germany; yet happly by some secret judgement of God he hath not atchieved the ende; with whom in my journey hetherwardes I had conference touchinge my legation, whereof when he had understandinge, he shewed great apperaunce of most ernest joye and gladnes, saying that it rejoyced him no les of the reconcilement of this realme unto christian unitie, then that his sonne was placed by mariage in the kingdome. And most glad of all that the occasion thereof shuld come by me, beinge an Englishemanne borne, whiche is, as it were, to call home oure selves. I can wel compare hym to David, whiche, thoughe he were a manne elected of God, yet, for that he was contaminate with bloode and war, coulde not builde the temple of Jerusalem, but lefte the finishynge thereof to Salomon, whiche was Rex pacificus. So may it be thoughte, that the appeasing of controversies of religion in Christianity, is not appoynted to this emperour, but rather to his sonne, who shal perfourme the buildyng that his father hath begun; which church cannot be perfitly builded without universallye, in all realmes, we adhere to one head, and do acknowledge hym to be the vicar of God, and to have power from above. For al power is of God, accordyng to the saying, Non est potestas nisi a Deo. And therefore I consider that all power being in God, yet for the conservacion of quiet and godly life in the world, he hath derived that power from above into two partes here in earthe, whiche is the power imperial and ecclesiasticall; and these two powers, as they be severall and distinct, so have they two severall effectes and operacions. For seculer princes, to whom the temporall swerde is committed, be ministers of God to execute vengeance upon transgressours and ill livers, and to preserve the wel doers and innocentes from injury and violence, which power is represented in these two most excellent persons, the king and quenes magesties here present, who have this power committed unto them immediatlye from God, wythout any superioure in that behalfe. The other power is of mi

nistracyon, whyche is the power of the keies, and order in the ecclesiastical state, which is by the authoritie of God's word, and examples of the apostles, and of all olde holy fathers, from Christ, hitherto attributed and geven to the Apostolike Sea of Rome, by speciall prerogative. From which sea I am here deputed legate and ambassadour, having full power and ample commission from thence, and have the keyes committed to my handes. I confess to you that I have the keyes not as mine owne keyes, but as the keyes of him that sent me, and yet cannot open, not for want of power in me to gyve, but for certayne impedimentes in you to receave, whiche must be taken awaye before my commission can take effect. This I protest unto you, my commyssion is not of prejudice to anye persone. I cum not to destroy but to build. I cum to reconcyle, not to condemne. I cum not to compel, but to call againe. I am not cum to call any thing in question already done, but my commission is of grace and clemencye to suche as will receave it; for touchinge all matters that be past, they shal bee as thinges cast into the sea of forgetfulnes. But the meane wherby you shal receave this benefit, is to revoke and repeale those lawes and shtutes whiche be impedymentes, blockes, and barres to the execution of my commission. For like as I myself had neyther place nor voice to speake here amonge you, but was to all respectes a banished man, til such time as ye hadde repealed those lawes that laie in my way; even so cannot you receave the benefite and grace offered from the Apostolike Sea, untyll the abrogacion of suche lawes whereby you have disjoyned and dissevered yourselves from the unity of Christes church; it remaineth therefore that you, lyke true christians and provydente men, for the weale of your soules and bodies, ponder what is to be don in this so weightye a cause, and so to frame youre actes and procedinges, as they may tend first to the glorye of God, and next to the conservacion of youre common wealthe, suertye, and quietnes."

This was the subshaunce of my lorde cardinalles oration, or rather his tale, whiche he pronounsed in such sort as no man could judge it any studyed matter, but a thing spoken ex tempore. Wherof a frende of myne, beinge a burges of the parliamente, and presente at the same tyme, toke the notes, and gave me the same in writing, so (as I beleve) nothinge that he spake in effecte is omitted.

And after that the assemble was broken, my lord cardinal taking leave of the king and queenes magesties, went to hys house at Lambeth. Then shortly after the foresayd thre estates assemhled agayne in the great chamber of the court at Westminster, where the kyng and quenes magestyes, and also my lorde cardynal, being present, they did exhibit, syttyng al on their knees, a supplicacion to their highnesses. Whiche supplicacion beyng read, their magesties exhibited the same unto my lorde cardinall; whose reverence, perceyving the effecte therof to be corresponding to his expectacion, did not only receive the same most humbly from their magesties, but also after he had in few woordes geven thankes to God, and hadde declared what great cause he had to rejoyse, above al others, that his cumming from Rome into Englande hadde taken moste happye successe, he representyng there the pope's holynes, and havyng the keys, and hys full power for the tyme, dyd geve them hys benediccion. Whiche beyng done, they all departed.

The copie of whyche supplycacion I have sent here also to your lordeship in maner, fourme, and effecte as foloweth, woorde by woorde: --

"We the lordes spirituall and temporall, and the commons of thys pre sente parlymente assembled, representing the whole bodye of the realme of Englande and dominions of the same, in oure owne names particulerly, and also of the sayde bodye universallye, in this supplication dyrected to yonre magestyes, wyth moste humble suite, that it maye by youre gracious intercession and meane bee exhybyted to the moste reverende father in God the lorde cardinall Poole lagate, sente speciallye hyther from oure moste holye father pope Julio the thirde, and the Sea Apostolyke of Rome; dooe declare ourselves very sorye and repentante of the scisme and disobedyence commytted in thys realme and the dominions of the same, agaynste the sayd Sea Apostolyke, eyther by makynge, agreing, or executyng any lawes, ordynannces, or commanndementes agaynste the supremacye of the sayed Sea, or otherwyse dooing or speakynge that myghte impugn the same. Offeryng ourselves, and promising by this oure supplicacyon, that for a token and knowledge of our sayed repentaunce, wee be and shal be alway readye, under and with the anthorities of youre magesties, to the uttermoste of oure power, to dooe that shal be in us for the abrogacyon and repealynge of the sayed lawes and ordinaunces in thys presente parlymente, as well for ourselves as for the whole bodye, whom we represent.

"Whereupon we most humblye beseche your majesties, as persons undefiled in the offence of thys bodye towardes the saide Sea, which nevertheles God by hys providence hath made subject to your majesties; so to set fourthe this oure moste humble suit that we maye obtaine from the Sea Apostolike, by the saide moste reverend father, as well particularlye as universallye, absolution, release, and discharge, from all daunger of suche censures and sentences, as by the lawes of the churche we be fallen in. And that we maye, as children repentaunte, be receaved into the bosome and unitye of Christes churche. So as thys noble realme, wyth all the membres thereof, maye in unitie and perfecte obedience to the Sea Apostolike, and popes for the tyme beinge, serve God and your majesties to the furderance and advancemente of hys honoure and glorye. Amem"

Then the fyrste sundaye in Advente followinge, my lorde cardinall came, at tenne of the clocke, from Lambeth by water, and landed at Poles wharfe. And cumminge from thence to Poles churche with a crosse, ii. pyllers, and two pollases of sylver borne before hym, he was there receaved by my lorde chaunceller, with procession. Where he taryed untill the kinges cummynge; whose hyghnes came from Westmynster by lande, and all hys nobles before him, to Poles also, at a leven of the clocke. And so the kynges majesty and my lord cardinall, wyth all the lordes of the privy counsell beinge pre}ente, with suche an audience of people as was never sene in that place before, my lorde chaunceller entered Poles crosse. And after that the people ceased, that so much as a whispering could not be hearde emongest them, more then emongst those of whome the poet Virgil speaketh, Conticuere omnes intentique ora tenebant, but every bente hartelye wyth eares to here, eyes to perceave, and handes to wryte, hys lordshyp proceded, and tooke to hys theam these wordes of the epystle of that daye, wrytten by saynte Paule the holye apostle in the xiii. chapter to the Romaynes, Fratres, scientes quia hora est jam nos de somno surgere, &c.

Whyche parcell of scripture was so godlye and so clearkelye handeled by him, as no manne alyve (all flattery doutles set aparte) was able to meande it. And there as saincte Paule exhorted the Romaines to caste awaye the workes of darkenes, and to put on the armoure of lyght, &c. even so his lordeshippe exhorted, wished, and willed, yea, and with all his hart desyred and praied all Englyshmen and others, which hadde slepte in Englande these twenty yeares in detestable heresyes, and erroneous doctrines, to forsake the devel, the fieshe, and the worlde, which was the occasyon of all evill, and to embrace God and hys holye catholyke fayth, whyche fayth was taughte by him, preached by his apostles, and receved of them by auncient olde fathers in the primitive churche. Whyche fayth also hath continued through all christendom from age to age, and also in Englande, until king Henry the eight toke on hym to be Supreme head of the church. From which tyme unto the raygne of the quenes magestie that now is, his lordshippe declared what miseries, what calamities, what sorrowes, and, griefes Englande had susteaned; what malice, what envie and hatred, what falshed, what crafte and subtiltie had reygned emongest all degrees in Englande; what abominable heresyes, what synistrat and erronious opinions were in Englande withoute anye restreynt taught and receaved; what tumultes and insurrections, to the castinge awaye of manye, and to the empoveryshynge of al, were in dyvers quarters of the same; and finallye, unto what ruyne and decaie the realme of Englande was like to come, yf almyghtye God of hys goodnes had not blest the same in tyme, wyth hys moste holye handes. These, wyth manye other notable, yea, and lamentable lessons, to longe here to bee rehersed, hys lordshyppe there declared, whyche moved a greate nombre of the audience with sorrowfull syghes and wepynge teares to chaunge theyr cheere.

In thys same selfe sermon he declared also, how xix. yeares agoe, at that tyme when the insurreccion in the north of Englande in defence of religion, that king Henry the eyght was minded to have geven over the supremacy to the pope's holines, but the leat therof was then because he thoughte it would be sayed it shoulde have been done for peace.

He declared also how the said king sente him and ser Henry Knyvet, knyghte, to the emperoure, exhorting his imperial majestie to be intercessour for him to the pope to receyve the supremacye; but it tooke none effect, because the time was not. He declared further, howe in kinge Edwardes dayes the counsell were once mynded to have the pope restored to the supremacy, but the let thereof was in those daies because, as it was supposed, it would have been sayd that the realme could not be defended durynge the kynges minoritie without the pope's adsistaunce. And, finally, he declared how the quenes magestie at her coronacyon thoughte for to have restored the popes holynes to his supremacy, but the tyme (he sayed) was not then. But now (sayd he) the tyme is cum that the kinges and quenes magesties have restored our holy father the pope to his supremacy,

and the thre estates assembled in the parliament, representing the whole body of thys noble empire of England and dominions of the same, have submitted themselves to his holynes, and his successours for ever. He declared also, howe that the moste reverende father in God, lorde cardinall Poole, beinge there put [22] by the kinge, was sente in [to] Englande as deputed legate and ambassadoure from the Sea Apostolyke of Rome, havinge full and ample commission from the popes holynes to blesse the realme of Englande. And here also he declared, howe muche bounde Englande is to thanke God, who of his devine providence hath appointed suche a godlye and vertuous prynce as the kynge that now is, he beinge sonne to soo victorious and moste riche an emperour, and he beinge also so riche a prince himselfe, to joyne in mariage with the quenes majestie, who for the moste hartye love that he had to hir hyghnes, lefte his owne countreys, realmes, and regions to strengthen hir most noble grace, and to enriche her empyre of Englande. And so to conclude, his lordshippe declared, that all the premisses being well remembred and consydered of all the audience, and also the kyng and quenes majesties godly procedinges beinge of them and all other theyr true subjectes hartely embraced and faithfully followed, they al then mighte synge with the angell whiche appered to the shepherdes at the natyvytie and birth of oure Savioure Jesus Christ, Gloria in excelsis Deo, et in terra pax hominibus, &c. And finally to say with the prophet and psalmist David, Haec est dies quam fecit Dominus, exaltemus et letemur in ea.

Whiche sermon beyng done, the kynges magestie departed towardes Westminster, and with his highnes my lorde cardinall, with the crosse only borne before him. Syns the daye of whiche sermon all such thinges as were amis and out of order here begin now to cum to rule and square, and occupye their auncyente and accustomed places.

And the most holy catholike fayth and true relygion of Christ, whyche in Englande hath been thys long tyme behynde the post and in captivitie, is now being delyvered and cummyng home agayne, of all bothe younge and olde embraced, worshipped and honoured. And all erronious doctrine and heretical bokes, with the teachers and setters fourth of the same, are convicted, abolished, yea explosed and dryven out of Englande. And finallye, all they whiche were herers and favorers of them, nowe layinge theyre handes to theyr heartes, and perceavinge theym selves seduced and deceaved by suche meanes, are sory, and do hartlye repent, mynding faithfully from hens forth their fautes to amend. Amongest whome I can no les do (my very good lorde) thenne numbre my selfe as one. For althoughe I was never (praysed be God) associated with any which wer erronious, or suspected to be fautours and defendours of hereticall and sinistrate opinions, but livinge under silence during the two late kinges procedinges, have kepte myselfe clere on every side, yet, nevertheles, as often as I have, and do remember with myselfe how lasciviously I lived in Englande these xx. yeres, and the most part thereof have followed the same trade of liberty and voluptuous livinge as a great numbre have done, where I myghte have endevoured myselfe in the meane season to vertuous learning and studye, I can no les doe, then lament and be sory; yea and with all my hart repente as others doe, purposinge (by God's grace) with them to mend my most miserable and synfull lyfe, and so to continew to my lyves ende. In which doing, I with those whiche have thus offended, and they with me, may be assured that our Saviour Christ, according unto his owne infallible wordes, spoken of one in the name of al sinners, wil have mercy, pity, and compassion on us, saying, Nolo mortem peccatoris, sed magis ut convertatur et vivat.

And thus England, and al we that dwel therein, accoumpt ourselves not onely happy, yea and moste happy, whiche from so many outragious stormes of errours, cares, and calamities, are thus called home agayne to the sure haven and porte of the most holy catholyke faythe; but also we do beleve with our very hartes, and do confesse with al our mouthes, that almighty God of hys devine providence hath preserved and kept iii. persons. as lode-starres and chiefe guydes, for the defendinge, inbringinge, and restoring of Englande thus to the unitie of Christes churche.

The first is the quenes majestie, who being from her infancye a virgin, and immaculate from all spottes of heresies: it hath pleased God to defende hir, ayde hir, and save hir from the handes, power, and might of her ene mies, and geving her the victorye over them in twinkelinge of an eye, whiche as roaryng lions would have devoured her. The second is my lord cardinal, who beyng an exile out of hys native countreth Englande, these xxi. yeares, for the two causes before mentioned, and in the meane season so abhorred, so hated, and so detested, as no man durst scars ones name him, whom the quenes magestie nowe hath restored to his bloud, and to the honour of his house. And the thirde is my lorde the bishop of Wynchester, lorde chaunceller of England, against whom from tyme to tyme suche sharpe snares have been layed, and suche ordinaunce leveled, for that he favored, and wold have to his power defended the most holy catholicke fayth, that it is a wounder howe he hath escaped, and speciallye at hys late being in London toure.

But suche are the workes of God the author of all goodnesse, who alwayes when it pleaseth him plucketh downe and deposeth the proude and hyghe minded, and defendeth and exalteth the humble and lowe of spirit, so that now all Christendom, as well as Englande, doth confesse that these forenamed iii. persons have been thus, throughe the providence of God, moste happly defended, preserved, and kept from their enemies handes, above the expectacion and judgement of all menne, for the restoring of Englande agayne to the unitie of Christes religion. Which (no dout it is) shal be to the glorye of God, the wealth of Englande, and to the perpetuall peace, love, and quietnes of this moste noble and hole yle of Britayn.

Other newes I have none, but those newes which most joifully rejoyseth all Englande, that the quenes magestie is conceaved with child, whom our Lord long preserve, and send her highnes a gracious delyveraunce. And also, that in Christmasse holydayes, the prynce of Piemont arryved in Englande, and shortly after hym the prince of Orenge, whiche are very pryncely intreated with the king and quenes magesties. And beecause I thought youre lordshipe woulde be somewhat desirous to knowe the stature and shape of this noble prince, the kynges magestie of Englande that nowe is, whom you have not sene, I thought it not muche amysse to descrybe hys person by wryting, that your mynde may conceave that which your iye hath not seen. As for the quenes most excellent magesties person, whose person you have so often tymes sene, I shall not greatlye nede to depainte unto you. Understande, therfore, that touchyng hys higth, I can wel compare hym to John Hume my lord of Jedwardes kinsman. [23] Of visage he is well favored, with a brod forhead, and grey iyes, streight nosed, aml manly countenaunce. From the forhead to the point of hys chynne, hys face groweth smal. His pace is princely, and gate so straight and upright, as he leseth no inche of his higthe; with a yeallowe head and a yeallowe berde. And thus to conclude, he is so wel proporcioned of bodi, arme, legge, and every other limme to the same, as nature cannot work a more parfite paterne; and, as I have learned, of the age of xxviii. yeares; whose majesty I judge to bee of a stoute stomake, pregnaunt witted, and of most jentel nature.

I have also sent your lordship certain verses and adages [24] written with the hande of the lorde Henry Stuarde, lorde Dernley, your nephew, which he wrot this tyme twelvemoneth, I beinge with him then at Temple Newsome in Yorkshire. And what praise your lordship may thinke him worthie, for this his towardnes in wrighting, beinge not yet fully ix. yeares of age, the like praise is he worthye (suerlye) in his towardnes in the Latin tounge, and the Frenche, and in sundrye other vertuous qualities; whome also God and nature hath endued with a good wit, jentilnes, beutie, and favour. So yf it may please God to lend him long life, he shall prove a witty, vertuous, and an active, well learned gentle man, whose noble parentes are my singuler good patrons. And thus trusting that your good lordship, of your accustomed humanitie and jentilnes, wil accept thys my symple letter in good parte, sent unto you for this newe yeares gyfte, although it be rude and destitute of wit, lerning, and eloquence, I most humbly besech the Kyng of kynges, and Lorde of lordes, long to preserve and kepe youre reverende lordeship in health, wealth, and fortunate felicitie, with a meri and mani newe yeares.

From the citie of London, this new yeares day, and the first of the kalenders of January. 1555.

By youre reverende lordeship's humble oratour,

JOHN ELDER.


The book concludes with a copy of the queen's letters patent to John Waylande for printing primers and manuells of prayers, which has been reprinted in the Typographical Antiquities, (Dibdin's edit.) vol. iii. p. 522. Ames supposed that the present tract was also printed by John Walley, but that, probably, is a mistake.

Footnotes